Which aspect of your previous cable tests did not work? No dial tone? No ringer sound for incoming calls?
If I understand correctly you want to remove the existing line cord of your phone (RJ11 plug to BT plug) and go straight from the phone into the hub with a new lead.
Don't have the Hub 3 myself but if you look into the back of the RJ11 TEL1 socket on the back of the hub, I would imagine it probably only uses 2 wires on pins 3 and 4 (the centre two pins). You'd have to check yourself to confirm this is correct.
You'd then need to look at the socket (usually also RJ11) on the body of the phone you are trying to connect to see how many pins that uses. Most modern domestic phones would also only use 2 pins (although some may present 4 pins and possibly use 3 pins, if they use the ringer wire)
This page gives a good explanation of phone cable wiring and pin-outs and pin numbering
Don’t recognise that arrangement of pins as would not expect pin 1 to feature anywhere in a domestic configuration.
You'd do better to properly work out, and test and record, the actual pinout arrangements of your existing phone cordage/adapter fully end-to-end before you try and make anything yourself, otherwise you may well end up damaging your phone and/or hub or just wasting your time if it fails to work again. Just connecting something up on a hunch it will work is not a good way to proceed.
I've got my answer phone working direct to the router No' 1 socket, with a 2 wire cable, twisted 2&3 (middle two wires). But I can't get the phone working. It's all been a waste of time as socket 2 on the router doesn't seem to work. Is it set up for a different cable type or just not for the phone? I wanted the phone in 1 and the answer phone in 2.